考研必背的基础语法知识点,名师手记

2019-11-06 22:47 来源:未知

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第十一讲 轻松句、并列句和复合句

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生龙活虎。考试大纲要求

  语法知识点1

调查大纲供给考生能科学判别句子的类型、分析句子结构、结合语境和句意选用十分的接二连三词语、判定主语和从句的不利语序、妥善选择主句和从句谓语动词的时态。

  1.as...as.。。指导的可比级:(1)“as +形容词或副词原级+ as+被比较对象”结构。例句: He studies as hard as you. 他像你同生机勃勃学习努力。

二。命题导向

  (2)在否定句或难题句中可用 not so…as…. 例句:He can not run so/as fast as you. 他没你跑得快。

高等高校统一招考对简易句、并列句和复合句的考试主要包罗:句子的组织、连词的选项、从句与主句的谓语动词的时态、主语和从句的语序、一些习于旧贯用语和差异日常的句式应用。

  2.only教导的倒装句型:only +状语 (或状语从句)位于句首时,句子部分倒装。 

三。复习要点

  例句: Only by diligence and honesty can one succeed in life.  只有不辞辛勤、正直,壹人在生活中才具打响。 

1.简易句、并列句和复合句

  注意:但 only修饰主语时,不倒装。例句: Only that girl knew how to work out the problem.  唯有那位女孩子知道怎么解那道题。

① 句子种类二种分类法

  3.wish教导的设想语气:wish 前面包车型地铁从句,现代表与实际相反的情况,或代表以往不太大概达成的希望时,其宾语从句的动词格局为: 

依据句子的用场,西班牙语的语句可分:陈诉句(肯定、否定)、疑问句(常常、特殊、选取、反意)、祈使句、惊叹句等两种。

  ⑴表示对当今景况的设想:从句动词用过去式或过去进行式表示,be 的过去式用were.   

遵照句子的构造可分:简单句并列句和复合句两种。

  I wish I knew the answer to the question.    小编梦想知道这一个标题标答案。(可惜不明了。) 

简短句唯有一个主语或并列主语和三个谓语或并列谓语。并列句由并列连词and, but, or,so等)或分行(;)把三个或八个以上的简便句连在一同构成。复合句:含有叁个或一个之上从句的句子。复合句满含:状语从句名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句)和定语从句等三种。

  ⑵表示对过去意况的伪造:从句动词用had +过去分词。 

② 并列句的归类

  I wish (that) I hadn’t wasted so much time.  小编后悔不应当浪费这么多时光。( 实际莺时经浪费掉了。) 

并列句指把多少个相近主要的句子连接在联合,句子之间常用and, not only…but also…, neither…nor…, then等并称连词连接。

  ⑶表示对未来的不合理愿望:谓语动词格局为“would/ should/ could/ might +动词原形”。在这里种景色下,主句的主语与从句的主语无法同黄金年代,因为主句的主语所愿意的从句动作能或不可能完毕,决意于从句主语的神态或希望(非动作名词除却) 。 

表示选取事关常用的连词有:or, either…or…, otherwise等

  I wish it would stop raining.  但愿雨能终止。 

表示转会关系常用的连词有:but, still, however, yet, while, when等。

  注意:若wish 后的宾语从句中用 would,能够表示乞请,常常意味着说话人的伤心或缺憾。

表示因果关系常用的连词有:so, for, therefore等。

  例句:I wish you would be quiet.  我盼望您安然一些。 

2.状语从句:

  4.it情势宾语:和it 作格局主语同样,  大家常用it 来作格局宾语, 把真正的宾语从句放在句末, 这种情况尤其出未来带复合宾语的句子中。

(1)状语从句的归类

  例句:He has made it clear that he will not give in. 他申明她不会屈服。 

状语从句平日修饰主句的动词或任何句子,由从属连词教导,从属连词在从句中不担当句子元素。依照状语从句所表达的比不上含义和法力,可分为时间、地方、原因、条件、目标、结果、妥胁、比较、方式等状语从句。

  5.The+比较级,the+比较级  表示“越....。。越....。。”。

(2)连接状语从句的用语

  例句:The more scared we are, the stronger the difficulty will become。我们越惊恐困难,困难就可以变得越强大。

时光状语从句:when, whenever每当……,after, before, as, as soon as, hardly/ scarcely...when..., no sooner...than.。.风流罗曼蒂克……就……,while, till, until, since, once。名词词组the first time第叁次,last time最后三遍,every/each time每便,the next time后一次,the next day第二天, the moment, the minute, the second, the instant 生机勃勃……就……;副词immediately, instantly, directly等也可作连词使用。

  语法知识点2

案由状语从句:because, since, as, now that。

  1. 宾语从句:经常难题句做宾语,引进if或whether

地址状语从句:where,wherever(无论这里)。

  例句: I want to know if he will join us in the discussion?

拗然而状语从句: no matter who/whom/what/which/how/when/where, though, although, as, even if /even though, whatever, whoever, however, wherever, whenever等。

  2. 缘由状语从句:since指引的

原则状语从句: if, unless, as/so long as(如若;只要),in case (万风姿浪漫); on condition that(假使), suppose, supposing, providing, provide。

  例句: Don’t eat too much sugar since it is bad for your health。

指标状语从句:in order that (为了),so that (以便)。

  3. 否定词前置倒装:scarcely...when。.

相比较状语从句:(not) as/so…as…,than…, the more…the more…(越……越……) 指引。

  例句: Scarcely had he arrived at home when it began to rain。

方法状语从句:as(正如;依据),as if/as though (好像)指点。

  4. If虚构条件句

结果状语从句: so that (结果是), so/such…that (如此……以致于)。

  从句 主句
跟现在事实相反 一般过去式(be用were) would/should/might/could +动原
跟过去事实相反 had+done would/should/might/could+have done
跟将来事实相反 should+动原;were to do sth would/should/might/could +动原

(3)从句中的语序

  5. 宾语从句:放在介词前边,作介词的宾语。

复合句中不足为道使用陈述语序。可是,在底下的两种状态下,状语从句多接纳倒装语序:

  例句:I know nothing about him except that he used to work in Shanghai。

①当连词as, though连接迁就状语从句时,作表语的名词、形容词、动词日常置于句首,构成都部队分倒装语序。举个例子:

  6.状语从句轻巧(分词作者状语):从句的主语和状语从句的主语意气风发致,状从简单选择分词作状语。例句:

Much as I have traveled, I have never seen anyone who’s as capable as John。

  (Because) being short of money, we can’t afford a TV set. =Because we are short of money, we can’t afford a TV set。

Try as she might, Carol couldn't get the door open。

  语法知识点3

Strange though it may seem, I like housework。

  1.并列句:由and, or , but连接的七个句子成为并列句。

②在so/such...that.。.结果状语从句中,so+形容词/副词或such+名词置于句首时,主句选拔局地倒装语序。比方:

  2.省略句 /倒装:so/系动词/助动词/情态动词 +sb 表示“前面二个景况适用于后世”。例句:

So successful was her business that Marie was able to set up new branches elsewhere.

  You are a student, so am I。

Such was the force of the explosion that windows were blown out。

  3.定语从句 who指引的约束性定从。例句:

③在hardly/scarcely...when..., no sooner...than.。.句式中,把hardly/scarcely/no sooner置于句首时,第一个分句选择局地倒装语序,即把第叁个分句用陈诉语序。比方:

  Do you remember the girl who taught us English ?你还记得教大家土耳其共和国语的不得了女孩啊?

Scarcely had he sat down when there was a knock at the door。

  5.倒装:否定词seldom前移,句子倒装。例句:Seldom did he speak。

④ however与形容词、副词一同辅导迁就状语从句,句子采取陈诉语序。比方:

  4.宾语从句:whether的用法。例句:I wonder if/whether it is going to rain tomorrow。

However amusing the story is, I have to put it away and focus my attention on study this week。

  5.不定式做定语。例句:The only way to solve our problems will continue to be rejected。

⑤ 在the +相比级the+相比较级句式中,只是把形容词或副词置于句首,句子还是接收陈说语序。举例:Education is about learning and the more you learn, the more equipped for life you are。

  6.原因状从:now that的用法。now that 代表 “既然”。与 since 的区别之处在于,now that 引出的必需是多个新面世的事实或情况,即使照旧依旧,和千古对待并不曾成形,则毫不 now that 辅导。

(4)从句和主句中谓语动词的时态

  例句:Now that we have all the materials ready, we should begin the new task at once。既然大家把具备材料都计划好了,我们相应及时开头那项新的行事。

在复合句中,主句和从句的谓语动词时态平时遵照以下的法则:

  7. 缘由状从:for的用法。由because 指点的从句假如放在句末,且前面有逗号,则足以用并列连词 for 来代表。但只要不是验证直接原因,而是三种情状再说推测,就只可以用 for 。例句:He is absent today, because/for he is ill. 他明天没来,因为他身患了。

①代表“同期”意义的连词as, when, as soon as, the moment, while 等连接的岁月状语从句,主句和从句时态基本意气风发致。举个例子:As time passed, things seemed to get worse。

  8. 原因状从:as 的用法。例句:The 新加坡共和国 passengers begin to decrease as other airlines spread their operating range。

② 表示“今后”意义的基准、时间和妥洽状语从句中多用平时以往时,而主句用平常以往时,被叫作“主将从现”。举个例子:汤姆won’t go to sleep unless his mother tells him a story。

  9. 同位语从句:I want to know the answer to this question who will be our next president。

Once I get him a job, he’ll be fine。

  原因状从: in that的用法。例句:

③ since带领的年月状语从句多用通常过去时,而带有since从句的主句平常用现时成功时。比方:I haven’t met her since I left university。

  Privatization is thought to be beneficial in that it promotes competition. 合资化的独特之处在于能促进互相角逐。

④在句式hardly/scarcely…when…, no sooner…than…中,第贰个分句中过去形成时,第一个分句用平常过去时。举个例子:She had hardly sat down when the phone rang。

  10. 不定式:不定式做目标状语。例句:We get up very early to catch the first bus。

⑤ 在as if/though 引导的状语从句中,如果表示后生可畏种与事实相反浮夸,从句多用日常过去时或过去完成时。比如:She stared at me as though I were a complete stranger。

  小说来源:跨考教育[微博]

(5)状语从句的简便

当从句的主语与主句的主语相通期,被动结构的状语从句,可回顾与主句雷同的主语和助动词,保留连词+过去分词;主动协会的状语从句,可归纳与主句相符的主语和助动词,保留连词+今后分词。比如:We all know that, if not carefully dealt with, the situation will get worse。

Though lacking money, his parents managed to send him to university。

(6)状语从句被用于重申组织中

状语从句作为被重申有个别用以重申组织时,风流洒脱律用It is/was …that…,不能够用when取代that。句子用陈诉语序。注意:当强调Not until +时间/时间状语时,主句的谓语动词不再采取倒装语序。比如:It was not until the war was over that the soldier was able to return home。

  1. 名词性从句

(1)名词性从句分类:

根据在句中的功能,名词性从句分为:主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句和同位语从句多种。

(2) 名词性从句的连接词

名词性从句的连接词可分为三类:that无词义,在从句中不担任成分,有的时候可被回顾;表示“是不是”用whether,唯有在宾语从句中,whether可被人if代替。Whether和if在从句中不担负成分。倘使从句缺乏主语、表语、宾语、或定语等语句成分,用三番五次代词what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which;如若从句缺乏状语,用连续副词when, where, how, why。

鉴于一连代词与连接副词在句中不再是疑问句,因此从句中谓语不用难点语序。连接代词与连接副词在从句充作句子成分,而连续几日词whether 和if(是或不是),在从句中不担负句子成分,只起连年成效。

(3) 名词性从句中的特殊时态

① 在偏下二种主语从句中,主语从句的谓语动词要用“should+动词原形”, should可归纳。

(1)It is+形容词+that…句型。见惯司空的形容词有important, necessary, natural, funny, strange, surprising, astonishing(令人愕然的)等。

(2) It is +名词+that…句型。习见的名词有pity, shame, advice, suggestion, proposal(提出,提出), requirement, request, desire, order等。

(3) It is+动词的过去分词+ that…句型。视而不见的动词有advise, order, propose, request, suggest, demand, require等。

②在insist(百折不挠), urge (催促), order(命令), command(命令), suggest(建议),advise(提出),recommend(提出,推荐), request(央浼,供给), demand(必要),require(供给,须要)等动词后的宾语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”, should可粗略。

③ 在富含advice, order, demand, proposal(建议), requirement, suggestion等名词的表语从句、同位语从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”,should可粗略。

④在一些意味感叹、恒心等情感色彩的名词性从句中,谓语动词用“should+动词原形”或“should +have done”,译为“竟然,居然”。举例:

I am surprised /shocked that you should speak in such a way。

I find it astonishing that he should be so rude to his mum。

It is strange /surprising that she should not have been invited。

I am glad that your story should have won the first prize。

  1. 定语从句

(1)定语从句的归类

定语从句分为限定性定语从句非节制性定语从句二种。限定性定语从句对先行词起修饰和限量功能,而非约束性定语从句对先行词起补充和平解决释表达效果与利益。平常限定性定语从句与先行词之间未有逗号,而非约束性定语从句与先行词之间有逗号隔开分离。

(2)定语从句的涉及代词和关联副词

定语从句常常由关系代词和关联副词指引。关系代词有:who, whom, whose, which, that, as;关系副词有:when, where, why。关系代词和事关副词必须放在从句之首,主句的先行词之后,起着接连几天来先行词和从句的效果,同不经常候在从句中又担负句子成分。

(3)关系代词和涉及副词的用法:

①超过行词为人时用who 作主语,whom作宾语;②超越行词为物或任何句猪时用which,可作主语或宾语;③先行词为人、物时用that ,可作主语或宾语;④ whose用作定语,可指人或物;⑤ 关系副词when指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语;⑥where(指地方,在定语从句中作位置状语);why指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。

(4)限定性定语从句与非节制性定语从句的分别

①限定性定语从句:从句与主句关系紧凑,去掉从句,主句意义残缺,以至不合逻辑。比如:I was the only person in our office who was invited。(去掉定语从句,句意就破损)

② 非节制性定语从句:从句与先行词关系但是细,去掉定从句,意思如故安然无恙。形式上用逗号隔断,不能够that用指点。举个例子:His movie won several awards at the film festival, which was beyond his wildest dream. (去掉定语从句,主句的意味仍完整)

(5)使用定语从句时需注意的多少个难点

①用that而不用 which的情况:先行词为不定代词all, anything, nothing, much…;先行词有参天级修饰,有序数词修饰;先行词有only, very, any等词修饰;先行词既有人又有物时。举例:There is nothing that can prevent him from doing it。

The first place that they visited in Guilin was Lijing。

This is the best coffee maker that I have ever been made。

Mr Smith is the only foreigner teacher that he knows。

② 用which而不用 that的场地:引导非约束性定语从句;指代整个主句的意味;用于介词 的末尾+ 关系代词。比如:Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, which used to be poorly run, is now a successful business. For many cities in the world, there is no room to spread our further, of which New York is an example。

③ 关系代词as的用法

a. 当现行词为 the same +名词,such+名词时,要用关系代词as辅导定语从句。举例:

I want to buy the same shirt as yours。

Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in Germany。

b. as可代替主句的原委,携带的非限定性定语从句既可放在主句在此以前,也可放在主句之后。常用来下列句型:as is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all know, as I expect 等。比方: He got the first place again in this mid-term examination, as we expected。

c. as 指点非节制性定语从句时与which的界别

当主句和从句语义少年老成致时,用as指引;反之,用which来指导迷津非节制性定语从句;当非限定订语从句为否定意义时,常用which指点。举个例子:

He made a long speech, as we expected。

He made a long speech, which was unexpected。

④提到代词在从句中作主语时,从句的谓语动词单数照旧用复数应由先行词决定。比如:

The man who lives downstairs makes it a rule to run in the park in the morning。

⑤ 教导定语从句的关系副词一时能够用“介词 + which”来代替。比方:

October 1, 1949 was the day on which (= when) the new China was founded。

⑥在”介词+关系代词”结构中,关系代词只好用which和whom,且必须要难;假如介词在句末,关系代词可用which, that, whom, 口语中也可用who,且可粗略。比方:

The man (whom/ who/ that) you were talking about is proves to be friendly。

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